Cirrhosis is a major and serious liver problem with most of the times ends up with liver transplantation. Major causes for liver cirrhosis are Alcohol, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C.
Presents with leg swelling, abdomen swelling ,altered behavior ,Blood vomiting or kidney problems.
Initially it is controlled with medicines and at later stage needs Liver transplantation.
What are the causes for liver cirrhosis?
Alcohol excessive drinking, Virus like Hepatitis B ,Hepatitis C, NASH fatty liver are common reasons.
Other causes are Wilson disease excess copper leading to liver damage, Hemochromatosis Excess iron in liver leading to liver damage Autoimmune liver disease (problem in our own immunity leads to liver Damage),PBC(Primary Biliary cirrhosis),PSC (Primary sclerosing Cholangitis) Both conditions are Bile duct(tube which connects liver and duodenum is damaged by our own immunity.
Still rare causes are Alfa 1 antitrypsin deficiency, Metabolic diseases like glycogen storage disorder.
How does liver cirrhosis present?
Ankle and leg swelling is the early symptom
Blood vomiting in some cases.
Altered behavior like excessive sleeping, confusion some time people present in coma.
Some people present with decreased urine formation Liver related kidney problem Hepatorenl syndrome.
What if they are not treated?
They present with complications like blood vomiting (Variceal bleeding).
Liver related kidney problem Hepato renal syndrome they produce less and less urine.
Liver related brain problems: Worst like in coma or confusion, altered behavior.
How do we treat?
Salt less in food is the key < 8gms per day of salt
Medicines that increase urine output like Lasilactone amifru or dytor which remove excess water in abdomen and leg to go out through urine.
Endoscopy is done to prevent blood vomiting by putting bands.
Tablets given for long time like inderal that is propranolol which needs to be given for long time which reduce risk of blood vomiting.
Medicines like Rifaximin or stool softeners like Lactulose are given for preventing confusions.
What if these fail?
If these measures fail or in some cases earlier itself Liver transplantation is done.
How to Prevent Liver cirrhosis?
By taking vaccines for hepatitis B which prevent liver damage.
No excessive alcohol and cigarette.
To consult Gastroenterologist when you have these symptoms. Not to delay in meeting your gastroenterologist.